Patient Education

Our team of specialists and staff believe that informed patients are better equipped to make decisions regarding their health and well being. For your personal use, we have created an extensive patient library covering an array of educational topics. Browse through these diagnoses and treatments to learn more about topics of interest to you. Or, for a more comprehensive search of our entire Web site, enter your term(s) in the search bar provided.

As always, you can contact our office to answer any questions or concerns.

Search Results
Bunions
...You should contact our office if you notice the following symptoms: An enlarged, visible bulge on your big toe joint Restricted movement of your big toe or foot that prevents you from performing normal activities Irritation, corns or calluses caused by the overlap of the first and second toes Frequent pain, swelling or redness around your big toe joint Treatment For a Bunion Treatment for a bunion will vary depending on its severity...

How to Minimize Diabetic Foot Problems
...Check your feet for cuts, redness, swelling and nail problems...

Flat Feet
... Common symptoms associated with flat feet Include: Swelling along the inside of the ankle Feet that tire easily or ache after standing for an extended period of time A lack of mobility in your foot and difficulty standing on your toes Sore, swollen feet; especially in the heel or arch of your foot Steps Away from Flat Foot Pain Relief If you are experiencing pain caused by flat feet, visit our practice for an evaluation...

Growing Pains
...The following symptoms are not due to growing pains and should be evaluated by a doctor: Persistent pain Swelling or redness in one specific area or joint Limping Fever Loss of Appetite Weakness Fatigue Abnormal behavior There are no treatments or medications available for growing pains, but parents can help ease the pain with simple home remedies...

Hammertoes
...Other signs and symptoms include: Difficult or painful motion of a toe joint Redness or swelling at a toe joint Development of calluses and corns Open sores in severe cases The foot and ankle professionals at our office recommend the following for preventing and reducing the symptoms associated with hammertoe: Wear comfortable, proper-fitting shoes that provide support and allow enough room for your toes Avoid high-heeled or narrow-toed shoes Stretch your toe muscles to relieve pressure and pain Apply splints, cushions or pads to relieve pressure Moisturize with cream to keep the skin soft Generally, a modification of footwear will reduce the symptoms associated with hammertoe...

Easy Ways to Prevent and Treat an Ingrown Toenail
...As the nail digs into the skin, redness, swelling, and pain are often the result...

Metatarsalgia
...Treatment to eliminate metatarsalgia symptoms can be as simple as resting, icing the affected area and wearing proper-fitting shoes to significantly reduce swelling and ease pain...

Plantar Fasciitis: Put Your Heel Pain to a Halt
...Reduce pain and swelling by icing the affected area each day...

Pregnancy and Foot Pain: How Mothers-to-Be Can Relieve Aching Feet
... One of the most common foot problems to occur during pregnancy is swelling, or edema, which results from an extra accumulation of blood...

Healthy Footwear Promote Healthy Feet
... Maximize Fit, Minimize Discomfort The following tips can help you avoid purchasing a pair of shoes that may contribute to a long list of foot problems: Try on shoes late in the day, when the feet tend to be a bit larger due to natural swelling Women should opt for low, stable heels Try on both shoes to be sure that they fit comfortably on both feet Choose breathable shoe materials, such as leather, to prevent excessive sweating and blisters Have your feet measured to ensure the best fit Avoid pointy-toed shoes which cause bunions and hammertoes Walk around the store with both shoes on to make sure the fit is comfortable For athletes, choose shoes that are specific to the sport you play Choose the right shoe for your foot type (e...

Shin Splints: How to Ease Your Lower Leg Pain
... Swelling in your shin increases...

Tarsal Tunnel Syndrome: Symptoms and Treatment
Maybe you've heard of carpal tunnel syndrome, a condition in the wrist that occurs when swelling or a change in position of the tissue within the carpal tunnel squeezes and irritates the median nerve...

Fighting Fungal Toenails
... Common signs and symptoms of toenail fungus include: Discoloring or yellowing of the nail Thickening or crumbling of the nail Swelling around the nail Disfigured nails Streaks or spots down the side of the nail Foul-smelling debris under the nail Pain and discomfort Complete nail loss Prevention is Key Fungal infections can affect the fingernails as well as the toenails, but toenail fungus is more difficult to treat because toenails grow more slowly...

5 Ways To Soothe Tired, Aching Feet
...Poor circulation can also cause foot swelling and, therefor, foot pain...

Prevention and Treatment for Achilles Tendonitis
... Symptoms Common symptoms of Achilles tendonitis include: Mild pain after running or exercising that intensifies gradually Localized pain along the tendon, especially after running Tenderness near the heel bone, with pain being worse first thing in the morning Stiffness and limited range of motion in the lower leg and ankle Swelling around the tendon When the disorder progresses to degeneration, the tendon may become enlarged and develop nodules in the area where the tissue is damaged Prevention To prevent injuries to the Achilles tendon, strengthening and stretching the calf muscles through daily exercise is recommended...

Preventing and Treating Ankle Sprains
...Look for the following symptoms if you think you have sprained your ankle: Immediate pain at the site of the tear Immediate swelling Hearing or feeling something tear, pop or snap during the twist Bruising Pain and difficulty moving the ankle Inability to walk or bear weight on the ankle Treating Your Ankle Sprain Early treatment of a sprained ankle can improve the recovery time and minimize symptoms...

Alleviating Painful Arthritis of the Foot and Ankle
...See a podiatrist if you experience any of the following symptoms: Swelling Chronic pain or tenderness Limited mobility or motion Stiffness early in the day Changes in skin, including growths and rashes                                               Whenever you notice a change in your lower extremities, contact our podiatrists at our practice for a thorough evaluation...

Ruptured Achilles Tendon: Prevention and Treatment
... Signs of a torn Achilles tendon include: Sudden, sharp pain in the back of the ankle and lower leg Snapping or popping sensation at the time of the injury Swelling down the back side of the leg or near the heel Difficulty walking or rising up on the toes The best treatment for a torn Achilles tendon is prevention...

Stress Fractures: Don't Put Off Painful Foot Injuries
... The most common symptoms of stress fractures include: Pain with or following normal activity Pain at the site of the fracture Tenderness and swelling at a point on the bone Pain intensified with weight bearing Rest, ice, compression, and elevation are recommended as an initial treatment plan for stress fractures...

Chronic Ankle Instability: How to Strengthen Weak Ankles
...Other symptoms include a repeated turning of the ankle during physical activity, tenderness and persistent discomfort and swelling...

Got Turf Toe?
...The most common symptoms of turf toe include: Swelling and pain at the joint of the big toe Pain and tenderness when bending the toe Stiffness and limited movement of the big toe joint If your symptoms are indicative of turf toe, then you may be able to relieve the pain and swelling with the following self-treatment, including: Ice the injury Apply a compression bandage Rest and temporarily discontinue any physical activity Wear a brace to protect the toe and to limit bending For more severe cases of turf toe, visit our office for a proper diagnosis and treatment plan...

RICE: Early Treatment for Minor Foot Injuries
... The following tips can aid in the early treatment of common foot and ankle injuries to help reduce swelling and control the inflammatory process during the initial phase of injury...

Bunionectomy: A Surgical Solution to Bunions
...Left untreated, bunions may become progressively worse, causing severe discomfort, difficulty walking, redness and swelling...

When to Visit Your Podiatrist
...Other signs that indicate a worsening condition and warrant medical attention include: Foot discoloration Pain and swelling in one foot A foot sore or wound that doesn’t heal How often you should visit a podiatrist depends on the individual...

Taking Steps Toward Healthier, More Attractive Feet
... When to Consult a Podiatrist If you are experiencing foot pain, don’t ignore it! Pain, redness, swelling or discoloration are not normal symptoms and should be examined by a trained specialist...

Sprains and Fractures - Protect Your Ankles from Instability
...The symptoms of an ankle sprain may include: Pain or soreness Swelling Bruising Difficulty walking Stiffness in the joint All ankle sprains will produce some level of pain at the time of your injury and the joint will also feel tender, beginning to swell...

Things You Can Do for a Broken Toe
... Treatments for a broken toe aim to reduce the pain and swelling and help the fracture heal properly...

Joint Pain in the Foot and Ankle
...Swelling, tenderness, stiffness, redness, bruising or increased warmth--these all can come along with the pain and can be caused by trauma, infection, arthritis, bursitis, gout or structural foot problems...

Are You Dealing With Bunions?
...Untreated bunions can continue to get worse if you don’t do something about them and can lead to other issues such as calluses and corns, or you may experience pain or redness on the site of the bunion, as well as swelling...

Heel Pain Treatment Options
...If pain and swelling are severe we may recommend steroid injections, extracorporeal shockwave therapy (ESWT) or ultrasound therapy...

Types of Custom Orthotics
...One of the most common signs that you may benefit from a pair of orthotics is heel pain (although you may also experience pain and swelling in other parts of the foot)...

Posterior Tibial Tendon Dysfunction (PTTD)
... SymptomsThe symptoms of PTTD may include pain, swelling, a flattening of the arch, and an inward rolling of the ankle...

Accessory Navicular Syndrome
...The signs and symptoms of accessory navicular syndrome include: A visible bony prominence on the midfoot (the inner side of the foot, just above the arch) Redness and swelling of the bony prominence Vague pain or throbbing in the midfoot and arch, usually occurring during or after periods of activity Diagnosis To diagnose accessory navicular syndrome, the foot and ankle surgeon will ask about symptoms and examine the foot, looking for skin irritation or swelling...

Common Disorders of the Achilles Tendon
... To reduce swelling due to inflammation, apply a bag of ice over a thin towel to the affected area for 20 minutes of each waking hour...

Achilles Tendon Rupture
... Signs and Symptoms  A person with a ruptured Achilles tendon may experience one or more of the following: Sudden pain (which feels like a kick or a stab) in the back of the ankle or calf – often subsiding into a dull ache A popping or snapping sensation Swelling on the back of the leg between the heel and the calf Difficulty walking (especially upstairs or uphill) and difficulty rising up on the toes These symptoms require prompt medical attention to prevent further damage...

Diabetic Complications and Amputation Prevention
...Inspect for: Skin or nail problems: Look for cuts, scrapes, redness, drainage, swelling, bad odor, rash, discoloration, loss of hair on toes, injuries, or nail changes (deformed, striped, yellowed or discolored, thickened, or not growing)...

Ankle Arthritis
...” When it affects the ankle joint it can produce swelling and pain, and may eventually result in deformity, loss of joint function, and decreased ability to walk...

Ankle Fractures
... Symptoms An ankle fracture is accompanied by one or all of these symptoms: Pain at the site of the fracture, which in some cases can extend from the foot to the knee Significant swelling, which may occur along the length of the leg or may be more localized Blisters may occur over the fracture site...

Chronic Ankle Instability
... People with chronic ankle instability often complain of: A repeated turning of the ankle, especially on uneven surfaces or when participating in sports Persistent (chronic) discomfort and swelling Pain or tenderness The ankle feeling wobbly or unstable Causes Chronic ankle instability usually develops following an ankle sprain that has not adequately healed or was not rehabilitated completely...

Ankle Pain
...Ankle pain can be associated with swelling, stiffness, redness, and warmth in the involved area...

Ankle Sprain
... Symptoms The symptoms of ankle sprains may include: Pain or soreness Swelling Bruising Difficulty walking Stiffness in the joint These symptoms may vary in intensity, depending on the severity of the sprain...

Bone Tumors in the Foot
... Symptoms of a bone tumor may include: • Fracture from slight injury, • Bone pain, often at night, • Occasionally a mass or swelling in the area...

Bursitis
... Symptoms of bursitis include localized redness, swelling and pain...

Fractures of the Calcaneus (Heel Bone Fractures)
... The signs and symptoms of traumatic fractures may include: Sudden pain in the heel and inability to bear weight on that foot Swelling in the heel area Bruising of the heel and ankle The signs and symptoms of stress fractures may include: Generalized pain in the heel area that usually develops slowly (over several days to weeks) Swelling in the heel area Diagnosis  To diagnose and evaluate a calcaneal fracture, the foot and ankle surgeon will ask questions about how the injury occurred, examine the affected foot and ankle, and order x-rays...

Capsulitis of the Second Toe
...It can feel like there’s a marble in the shoe or a sock is bunched up Swelling in the area of pain, including the base of the toe Difficulty wearing shoes Pain when walking barefoot In more advanced stages, the supportive ligaments weaken leading to failure of the joint to stabilize the toe...

Charcot Foot
... SymptomsThe symptoms of Charcot foot may include: Warmth to the touch (the affected foot feels warmer than the other) Redness in the foot Swelling in the area Pain or soreness DiagnosisEarly diagnosis of Charcot foot is extremely important for successful treatment...

Deep Vein Thrombosis (DVT)
... Risk Factors for DVT: Blood or vein conditions:  Previous DVT Varicose veins Blood clotting disorders Family history of DVT or blood-clotting disorders Other medical conditions: Heart disease Chronic swelling of the legs Obesity Inflammatory bowel disease Cancer Dehydration Sepsis Women's Health issues: Hormone replacement therapy Birth control pills containing estrogen Pregnancy or recent childbirth Other: Age over 40 years old Immobility (through inactivity or from wearing a cast) Recent surgery Trauma (an injury) Smoking Causes of DVT   Many factors can contribute to the formation of a DVT...

Diabetic Complications and Amputation Prevention
...Inspect for: Skin or nail problems: Look for cuts, scrapes, redness, drainage, swelling, bad odor, rash, discoloration, loss of hair on toes, injuries, or nail changes (deformed, striped, yellowed or discolored, thickened, or not growing)...

Diabetic Foot Care Guidelines
...Check for cuts, blisters, redness, swelling, or nail problems...

Diabetic Peripheral Neuropathy
...If you notice any cuts, redness, blisters, or swelling, see your foot and ankle surgeon right away...

DVT (Deep Vein Thrombosis)
... Risk Factors for DVT: Blood or vein conditions:  Previous DVT Varicose veins Blood clotting disorders Family history of DVT or blood-clotting disorders Other medical conditions: Heart disease Chronic swelling of the legs Obesity Inflammatory bowel disease Cancer Dehydration Sepsis Women's Health issues: Hormone replacement therapy Birth control pills containing estrogen Pregnancy or recent childbirth Other: Age over 40 years old Immobility (through inactivity or from wearing a cast) Recent surgery Trauma (an injury) Smoking Causes of DVT   Many factors can contribute to the formation of a DVT...

Fifth Metatarsal Fracture
...These include: Pain, swelling, and tenderness on the outside of the foot Difficulty walking Bruising may occur Diagnosis Anyone who has symptoms of a fifth metatarsal fracture should see a foot and ankle surgeon as soon as possible for proper diagnosis and treatment...

Flatfoot-Adult Acquired
... Symptoms The symptoms of PTTD may include pain, swelling, a flattening of the arch, and an inward rolling of the ankle...

Foot Arthritis
...” When it affects joints of the foot it can produce swelling and pain, and may eventually result in deformity, loss of joint function, and decreased ability to walk...

Foot Fracture
...Pain, swelling, redness, and even bruising are signs of a possible fracture...

Foot Lumps
...  They can be caused by soft tissue swelling, sacs of fluid, fatty tissue, and nerve, vessel or muscle enlargements...

Fracture-Ankle
... Symptoms An ankle fracture is accompanied by one or all of these symptoms: Pain at the site of the fracture, which in some cases can extend from the foot to the knee Significant swelling, which may occur along the length of the leg or may be more localized Blisters may occur over the fracture site...

Fracture-Foot
...Pain, swelling, redness, and even bruising are signs of a possible fracture...

Fractures of the Calcaneus (Heel Bone Fractures)
... The signs and symptoms of traumatic fractures may include: Sudden pain in the heel and inability to bear weight on that foot Swelling in the heel area Bruising of the heel and ankle The signs and symptoms of stress fractures may include: Generalized pain in the heel area that usually develops slowly (over several days to weeks) Swelling in the heel area Diagnosis  To diagnose and evaluate a calcaneal fracture, the foot and ankle surgeon will ask questions about how the injury occurred, examine the affected foot and ankle, and order x-rays...

Fractures of the Fifth Metatarsal
...These include: Pain, swelling, and tenderness on the outside of the foot Difficulty walking Bruising may occur Diagnosis Anyone who has symptoms of a fifth metatarsal fracture should see a foot and ankle surgeon as soon as possible for proper diagnosis and treatment...

Fracture-Toe
... Bruising and swelling the next day...

Gout
... Symptoms An attack of gout can be miserable, marked by the following symptoms: Intense pain that comes on suddenly – often in the middle of the night or upon arising Signs of inflammation such as redness, swelling, and warmth over the joint...

Haglund's Deformity
...The symptoms include: A noticeable bump on the back of the heel Pain in the area where the Achilles tendon attaches to the heel Swelling in the back of the heel Redness near the inflamed tissue Diagnosis After evaluating the patient’s symptoms, the foot and ankle surgeon will examine the foot...

Hallux Rigidus
...) Pain and stiffness aggravated by cold, damp weather Difficulty with certain activities (running, squatting) Swelling and inflammation around the joint As the disorder gets more serious, additional symptoms may develop, including: Pain, even during rest Difficulty wearing shoes because bone spurs (overgrowths) develop Dull pain in the hip, knee, or lower back due to changes in the way you walk Limping (in severe cases) Diagnosis The sooner this condition is diagnosed, the easier it is to treat...

Heel Bone Fractures
... The signs and symptoms of traumatic fractures may include: Sudden pain in the heel and inability to bear weight on that foot Swelling in the heel area Bruising of the heel and ankle The signs and symptoms of stress fractures may include: Generalized pain in the heel area that usually develops slowly (over several days to weeks) Swelling in the heel area Diagnosis  To diagnose and evaluate a calcaneal fracture, the foot and ankle surgeon will ask questions about how the injury occurred, examine the affected foot and ankle, and order x-rays...

Inflammation: Actue
...These include:   Swelling Pain Increased warmth and redness of the skin Inflammation can be acute or chronic...

Ingrown Toenails
...This “digging in” of the nail irritates the skin, often creating pain, redness, swelling, and warmth in the toe...

Intermetatarsal Neuroma
...Placing an icepack on the affected area helps reduce swelling...

Joint Pain in the Foot
...The pain may be accompanied by swelling, tenderness, stiffness, redness, bruising and/or increased warmth over the affected joints...

Joint Swelling in the Foot
...This results in an accumulation of fluid in the tissues in and around the joint, resulting in swelling...

Jones Fracture
...These include: Pain, swelling, and tenderness on the outside of the foot Difficulty walking Bruising may occur Diagnosis Anyone who has symptoms of a fifth metatarsal fracture should see a foot and ankle surgeon as soon as possible for proper diagnosis and treatment...

Lisfranc Injuries
... Symptoms The symptoms of a Lisfranc injury may include: Swelling of the foot Pain throughout the midfoot when standing or when pressure is applied Inability to bear weight (in severe injuries) Bruising or blistering on the arch are important signs of a Lisfranc injury...

Lumps
...  They can be caused by soft tissue swelling, sacs of fluid, fatty tissue, and nerve, vessel or muscle enlargements...

Os Trigonum Syndrome
... Signs and Symptoms of Os Trigonum Syndrome  The signs and symptoms of os trigonum syndrome may include: Deep, aching pain in the back of the ankle, occurring mostly when pushing off on the big toe (as in walking) or when pointing the toes downward Tenderness in the area when touched Swelling in the back of the ankle Diagnosis Os trigonum syndrome can mimic other conditions such as an Achilles tendon injury, ankle sprain, or talus fracture...

Osteoporosis
... Increased pain with walking, accompanied by redness and swelling on the top of the foot, is a sign that you should see a foot and ankle surgeon for x-rays and examination...

Osteoarthritis of the Foot and Ankle
... Symptoms People with osteoarthritis in the foot or ankle experience, in varying degrees, one or more of the following: Pain and stiffness in the joint Swelling in or near the joint Difficulty walking or bending the joint Some patients with osteoarthritis also develop a bone spur (a bony protrusion) at the affected joint...

Osteopenia
... Increased pain with walking, accompanied by redness and swelling on the top of the foot, is a sign that you should see a foot and ankle surgeon for x-rays and examination...

P.A.D. (Peripheral Arterial Disease)
...Check all over for sores, cuts, bruises, breaks in the skin, rashes, corns, calluses, blisters, red spots, swelling, ingrown toenails, toenail infections, or pain...

Peripheral Arterial Disease (P.A.D.)
...Check all over for sores, cuts, bruises, breaks in the skin, rashes, corns, calluses, blisters, red spots, swelling, ingrown toenails, toenail infections, or pain...

Peripheral Neuropathy: Diabetic
...If you notice any cuts, redness, blisters, or swelling, see your foot and ankle surgeon right away...

Peroneal Tendon Injuries
...Symptoms of tendonitis include: Pain Swelling Warmth to the touch Acute tears are caused by repetitive activity or trauma...

Posterior Tibial Tendon Dysfunction (PTTD)
... Symptoms The symptoms of PTTD may include pain, swelling, a flattening of the arch, and an inward rolling of the ankle...

Pump Bump (Hallux Rigidus)
...) Pain and stiffness aggravated by cold, damp weather Difficulty with certain activities (running, squatting) Swelling and inflammation around the joint As the disorder gets more serious, additional symptoms may develop, including: Pain, even during rest Difficulty wearing shoes because bone spurs (overgrowths) develop Dull pain in the hip, knee, or lower back due to changes in the way you walk Limping (in severe cases) Diagnosis The sooner this condition is diagnosed, the easier it is to treat...

Puncture Wounds
...The signs of a minor infection that show up around the wound include soreness, redness, and possibly drainage, swelling, and warmth...

Rheumatoid Arthritis in the Foot and Ankle
...The signs of inflammation can include pain, swelling, redness, and a feeling of warmth around affected joints...

R.I.C.E Protocol
... Compression: An elastic wrap should be used to control swelling...

Sesamoid Injuries in the Foot
...Turf toe causes immediate, sharp pain and swelling...

Shin Splints
“Shin splints” is a term to describe pain and swelling in the front of the lower legs...

Stress Fracture in the Foot
... Pain, swelling, redness, and possibly bruising can be signs of a stress fracture...

Swollen Ankles
Swelling of the ankles may be due to many factors, including trauma, infection, tumor, varicose veins, improper function of the lymphatic system, poor circulation, hypertension, and congestive heart failure, to name a few...

Swollen Feet
Swelling of the feet may be due to many factors, including trauma, infection, tumor, varicose veins, improper function of the lymphatic system, poor circulation, hypertension, and congestive heart failure, to name a few...

Synovitis
...Symptoms of synovitis may include redness, swelling, warmth, and pain with joint motion...

Tailor's Bunion
... Symptoms The symptoms of tailor’s bunions include redness, swelling, and pain at the site of the enlargement...

Talar Dome Lesion
...The signs and symptoms of a talar dome lesion may include: Chronic pain deep in the ankle—typically worse when bearing weight on the foot (especially during sports) and less when resting An occasional “clicking” or “catching” feeling in the ankle when walking A sensation of the ankle “locking” or “giving out” Episodes of swelling of the ankle—occurring when bearing weight and subsiding when at rest Diagnosis A talar dome lesion can be difficult to diagnose, because the precise site of the pain can be hard to pinpoint...

Tarsal Tunnel Syndrome
... An injury, such as an ankle sprain, may produce inflammation and swelling in or near the tunnel, resulting in compression of the nerve...

Tired Feet
...Obesity, improper footwear, pregnancy, leg swelling, increased activity level, or compensation from an injury (through overuse of other parts of the foot and/or the opposite foot) are other potential factors in the development of tired feet...

Toe and Metatarsal Fractures (Broken Toes)
... Bruising and swelling the next day...

Turf Toe
... Symptoms The signs and symptoms of turf toe can include pain, swelling, and limited joint movement...

Varicose Veins
..."  The condition can cause swelling of the legs, ankles, and feet...

Wounds-Puncture
...The signs of a minor infection that show up around the wound include soreness, redness, and possibly drainage, swelling, and warmth...

Yellow Toenails
... Other potential causes for yellow discoloration of the nail include diabetes mellitus and lymphedema (chronic leg swelling)...